Established in 1990, according to the order of Mr. Chuan Leekpai, Prime Minister and Wild Animal and Plant Foundation of Thailand. It includes Koh Rok, Koh Mai Ngam Tai, Koh Ta La Beng, Koh Lanta Yai, Koh Ngai, Koh Tu Kon Lima, Koh Rok Nok, Koh Rok Nai, Hin Dang and nearby islands of Koh Klang district, Koh Lanta Noi district and Koh Lanta Yai sub district, Amphoe Koh Lanta, Krabi province. It is the 62th national park of Thailand which covers area of 134 square kilometers or 83,750 rais.
Over all geographical features is the complexity of mountains and rather deep slope. The plain area would be found only in a beach area in the southern part. Most of area here is more than 35 percent slope, except only the middle part of island where a slope is more than 50 percent. The height of this area is ranging from 100 meters above sea level to a height of 488 meters at the peak of mountain.
Most rainfall is in September which is about 391.4 millimeters and the lowest in January which is about 6.5 millimeters. Number of days of the highest raining is in September which is about 21.6 days and the lowest is in February, about 1.6 days.
In rainy season, the national park will be closed (Koh Rok Nok Island, Koh Rok Nai Island, and Hin Muang - Hin Daeng Rock) during 16 May - 15 November every year for visitor’s safety.
FLORA AND FAUNA
There are a lot of fertile forest resources and varieties of vegetation which could be classified as follows:
- Rainforest covers 19.42 squares meter of Koh Lanta Yai Island, along the Lanta Mountain which covers most of area of the national park. Upper level trees and middle level trees at average height about 15-25 meters are found in this forest. The important plants are L. Siamica, Hopea Ferrea Heim, etc. And also the palm tree and cane wood species are the low level trees here, the important species are Fan Palm, Calamus Erectus Roxb., Calamus Caesius Bl., Calamus Peregrinus Furt.,etc.
- Mangrove Forest could be found in Koh Mai Ngam island, South Koh Mai Ngam island and Koh Ngu Island. These islands are not big and most of area is covered with the mangrove forest. Mangrove trees are tall at the same height with average about 5 meters. Plants could be found here are Avicennia Alba, Rhizophora Apiculata, Rhizophora Mucronata.
- Beach Forest covers the small area between connecting area of beach and rainforest of Koh Ngai Island. The important plants are Bengal Almond, Derris Indica, Beach Moring Glory, etc.
We are able to classify into 6 groups as shown below.
- Mammal Animals consists of 20 families 30 geniuses and 38 species which 2 species had gone from Koh Lanta Island. They are wild deers and tigers, and the other species is the sea cow which is the conserved animal. Two species that have been gone are the common barking deer and fishing cat. The rarely finding animal on this island is the marshal big ear crow bat.
- Birds on these islands are totally 58 families, 130 geniuses and 185 species. Most easy find in this national park are Brahminy Kite, Birdled Tern, Emerald Dove, etc while the most difficult find are Orange-Breasted Trogon, Siberian Thrush, and Little Spider hunter, etc.
- Reptiles, mostly are Water Monitor, Reticulated Python and Cobra, etc.
- Amphibians could be found two species, the first one living in canal is Giant Mountain Frog, Ornate Froglet and the second one living in building and ponds. Others amphibians in forest are Polypedates Leucomystax (Gravenhorst)-1829 and Small Toads and the difficult find species is the Dorria frog.
- Sea and Fresh Water Fishes which could be found in fresh water ponds of the islands, fresh water fishes that you can find here such as Blue Danio. While the sea fishes would be found along the coral reef, rock beach and fresh water canals such as Lizard fish and Porcupine fish, etc.
Animals in the Coral Reef are Staghorn coral, Fungia Dungites, Anemone coral, Starflower coral, etc.